This glossary provides definitions of specific pieces of terminology as well as commonly used terms that come up in conjunction with child sexual abuse material and National Socialism on the internet.
With regard to Internet content:
- Block: This means making content inaccessible. The content is still there, but no longer visible to or accessible for certain Internet users (e.g. within a country or for customers of a particular access provider).
- Delete: The content is deleted and no longer stored on the host server. Thus, it is no longer available on the Internet.
These are special computer programs for displaying websites, e-groups etc. within the World Wide Web (e.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera)
See Cyber bullying
IRC (Internet Relay Chat) and Chat is the discussion between users via Internet. Messages can be transmitted in real time via chat programs. Meanwhile, chatters tend to make use of their own “language“, which consists of many abbreviations and symbol strings. Many portal and website providers offer chat-rooms (special area on the website including a chat program) as a part of their customer retention measures.
Pornographic representations of minors (pursuant to section 207a Austrian Criminal Code [StGB]) refers to images of sexual acts or pictures with a focus of the genitals of persons under the age of 18.
The cloud (or cloud computing) refers to the provision of IT infrastructure (e.g. storage or computing power) as a service via the internet. The best know cloud service providers are Google Drive, Apple iCloud, OneDrive and Dropbox.
A cookie is a small text file that your browser (e.g. Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera) stores on your device (PC, smartphone, etc.) when you visit a website. This text file stores information so that the website recognises your device when you visit the site again. Cookies have various uses, ranging from technologically helpful and essential cookies, to profiling cookies. Technologically essential cookies enhance convenience, allowing you to visit websites without interference and to shop online. Third-party cookies can be used to profile your surfing behaviour online, and this information is normally used for tailored advertising.
This term is applied to different forms of intimidation, harassment and coercion of others using electronic communications media (e.g. different internet services, mobile telephones).
The majority of harassment online takes place in chatrooms, via instant messenger services or via mobile telephone.
See Cyber bullying
A domain on the internet is a unique, freely selectable name which conforms to certain rules and appears under a top level domain (TLD) such as .at or .com. Domain names are used for different services (e.g. websites, e-mail) and comprise a series of characters and/or numbers, a dot (full stop) and a top level domain such as at, de, com, org. Anything before or after the domain name – separated by a dot (.), slash (/) or other special character is not part of the actual domain name (not a domain: www.example.at/example)
Downloading is the act of saving data from the internet to your computer or other media. The flow of data in the other direction is referred to as uploading.
E-groups can be accessed via browsers, just like websites, but they also support the creation of discussion forums and photo albums (like MSN Groups). It is possible to provide access to members of a particular e-group only.
Electronic letters sent via Internet are called e-mails. They are forwarded by different programs like Microsoft Outlook or Lotus Notes as well as by various Internet providers or free e-mail providers like GMX or Hotmail.
This refers to the process of converting data (plain text) into a ‘secret text’. This secret text can only be deciphered using a key. Data is often encrypted to ensure that it is not accessed by anyone without authorisation.
File-sharing is the exchange of data on the Internet (games, music, software, pictures etc.) by means of programs like Bear Share or Emule. There are two different methods; one is to offer data that can be downloaded from a central computer (server); the second is to store the data on the users‘ computers, where they can be downloaded if required.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a network protocol to transfer data over the IP network (internet protocol network).
FTP servers are programs or entire computers that provide access for FTP client programs. FTP servers usually act as central download servers, e.g. for drivers and software updates, but also offer other kinds of data.
Grooming is the attempt by an adult to get into contact with kids and young people for sexual purposes. By pretending to be of the same age, the person uses chat rooms, forums and communities to gain the confidence of the teenagers and get as much information as possible, often trying to meet them in order to fulfil their sexual interests.
In terms of computers, hosting can have different but usually similar meanings. If Stopline refers to hosting, it usually refers to the server that hosts web content and makes it available to everyone.
Generally, a hotline is an information and advisory service. Stopline, in particular, is a report office against against Child Sexual Abuse Material and National Socialism on the Internet.
INHOPE – the International Association of Internet Hotlines – is the association of international report centres against illegal material on the internet. The joint aim of the around 50 INHOPE hotlines, now in operation in some 40 countries worldwide, is to remove child sexual abuse material from the internet and protect young people from any damaging and illegal uses of the internet. The INHOPE Foundation is an organisation that helps set up new hotlines, particularly in developing countries and emerging economies so that it can continue to build its global network. By exchanging information quickly and securely among themselves, INHOPE partners have helped to bring down numerous rings dealing in child sexual abuse material.
With only few exceptions (e.g. Ukraine, China and Vietnam), INHOPE hotlines are in operation in the countries at the root of the most Stopline reports.
A service provider offers telecommunications or internet services to the general public. A distinction is made:
- Access provider: Only provides access to the Internet
- Hosting provider: Provides space for websites, nameserver entries, storage space for e-mail etc.
Every device that is connected to the internet is given an IP (internet protocol) address such as 22.214.171.124, so that it can be contacted. It is possible for an IP address to be assigned to a single recipient or a group of recipients. One computer can have multiple IP addresses.
Computer programs that execute harmful commands are known as malware (also evilware and junkware). Their primary purpose is to grant third-party control of a computer and not necessarily proliferation as with Trojans and other viruses.
An internet protocol used to translate memorable domain names into numerical IP addresses enabling users to connect to the right server. The DNS is comparable to a telephone directory: the internet user knows the domain and sends their inquiry out into the internet by entering the URL into their browser. The DNS converts the URL into the corresponding IP address, connecting users with the correct server.
Endorsement in National Socialist activities or ideologies takes many forms. However, not every racist or inflammatory statement automatically qualifies as approving National Socialist ideology. In Austria, denial of National Socialist crimes and the dissemination or glorification of National Socialist content is punishable by law. This includes acts such as distributing speeches by National Socialist functionaries, making heroic depictions of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), Schutzstaffel (SS) or Sturmabteilung (SA), founding National Socialist societies, recruiting members for such organisations or simply being involved in them in any way.
However, it is only possible to initiate countermeasures in Germany and Austria. In other countries (e.g. the USA) there is no legal basis for action as such activities are protected under freedom of speech laws.
Newsgroups are discussion forums in which internet users exchange views and texts (articles, postings) on a defined topic. If a user publishes an article in a newsgroup, it is sent to a news server, which can make it available to its users and forward it to another server which, in turn, propagates and shares it with its users. By joining a newsgroup, internet users can access these forums with a newsreader (e.g. Outlook Express, Messenger) or browser (e.g. Internet Explorer, Firefox).
Newsreaders are special programs (e.g. Mozilla Thunderbird, Microsoft Outlook Express) for reading and writing comments in Newsgroups within the Usenet.
This is either software that forwards, stores and provides Usenet messages, or a computer that runs such software.
Phishing is the term for a malicious attempt to elicit access data to online services from unwitting users. This mainly occurs via fake websites, e-mails or SMS. Typically, phishers attempt to recreate the appearance of an authentic website to trick users into divulging sensitive information.
These are individual pieces of content (e.g. text, images, video etc.) on Usenet or social networks.
A server (software) is either a computer program or a computer that communicates with another program (the client) to grant it access to services, data or other resources.
Sexting describes the act of exchanging intimate photos or videos via the internet or a smartphone. For many young people sexting is seen as proof of trust or commitment when friends/partners send each other nude images.
Consensual sexting (i.e. a person over the age of 14 sending or forwarding erotic images of their own body) has not been a punishable offence since 1 January 2016 (see section 207a para. 5). It is, however, still an offence if images of this nature are produced under duress or transmitted to a third party.
Sextortion is a type of scam in which images or video material of a user in a compromising situation (e.g. masturbating) or naked is used for the purposes of blackmail. In many cases users are talked into participating in sex chats before the intimate material is used to blackmail them.
Source text (or source code) is the term for a text which is legible to human beings written in a programming language for a computer program, website or anything else which can be programmed.
Streaming (data transfer) refers to the simultaneous transmission and playing of video and audio files over the internet or a network of computers as a steady, continuous flow.
TOR (The Onion Router) is a network for anonymising connection data which allows users to surf the internet anonymously. As with the layers of an onion, TOR uses several servers to hide all traces of internet activity. Using TOR is not illegal per se, but many cyber criminals use the network to erase their online footprints.
The term for transferring data from a local computer or data storage medium to a remote computer. The flow of data in the other direction is referred to as downloading.
A web address or URL (Uniform Resource Locater) is the description of a website entered in a browser in order to access it (e.g. http://www.stopline.at).
This means either forwarding the user from a typed-in Internet address to another, or opening additional websites.
The Usenet is a worldwide electronic network that provides discussion forums (so-called Newsgroups) of any kind to virtually everyone. Newsgroups are usually accessed via a Newsreader.
World wide web (WWW) is a system of websites (electronic hypertext documents) which is accessible via the internet. Pages on the world wide web are accessed using a browser (e.g. Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera) by entering either a URL (e.g. www.stopline.at) or an IP address (e.g. 126.96.36.199).